Semen analysis and insight into male infertility
Objective. Semen analysis is the cornerstone for the valuation of the male partner in the infertile couples. This test has been standardized throughout the world through the World Health Organization (WHO) since the 1970s by producing, editing, updating, and disseminating a semen analysis manual and guidelines. A retrospective study to give an insight about male infertility.
Patients and Methods. This retrospective study assessed the semen findings of 1000 men evaluated at the Department of Urology, Al-Kindy Teaching Hospital in Baghdad-Iraq between January 2016 and May 2019. Semen analyses were done for them.
Results. According to WHO standard for semen normality, 1000 samples that were analyzed, normospermia was shown in 835 (83.5%) males (95% CI = 0.811-0.857) and 12% had oligospermia and the rest 4.5% was azospermia. The normospermic samples had significantly higher levels regarding the following parameters: count per ml (51.30 ± 1.24) (p = 0.001), volume (3.34 ± 2.31) (p = 0.0001), pus cell (8.04 ± 1.02) (p = 0.0001), motility (22.81 ± 5.8) (p = 0.0001), abnormal motility (22.81 ± 5.8) (p = 0.0001) and normal (V) (p = 0.0001) or abnormal morphology (25.86 ±12.4) (p = 0.0002) when compared with oligospermia.
Conclusions. Semen analysis is the keystone of infertile couple. Semen parameters like sperm concentration, motility and morphology, are indicators for male reproductive function. Sperm concentration is declining and there is a significant association between sperm concentration and sperm parameters.