Neonatal seizures in the pediatric teaching hospital in Bangui: epidemiology, etiologies and outcome

Objective. The highest incidence of seizures is noted in the neonatal period. It affects 1.5-3.5 per 1000 live births. The etiologies are diverse and it constitutes the most frequent marker of cerebral injury.
To describe the profile of neonatal seizures managed in a hospital setting in a low income country.
Materials and Methods. A single-center, cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted over a 6-month period (January to June 2022). Newborns with seizures upon admission or during hospitalization were included.
Results. Out of 770 newborns admitted, 100 presented seizures; a hospital frequency of 12.98%. The sex ratio was 1.5 and the mean age was 3.2 days. Among the mothers, those under 25 years represented 59% and 54% were primiparous. Antenatal cares were poorly attended in 70% of cases. In 29% of cases, no antenatal care was performed. The mothers lived in rural areas in 13% of cases. Fifty-nine percent of newborns were sent from a hospital. Twenty-nine percent of transfers were medicalized. Forty-five percent of seizures were observed upon admission and 55% occurred in the ward. Tonic seizures were observed in 45% of cases. Status epilepticus were observed in 47% of cases. The main etiologies were: hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (44%), neonatal infection (20%) and sepsis (16%). Death was noted in 28% of which 71.42% (n = 28) after 24 hours.
Conclusions. Neonatal seizures are common at CHUPB. Asphyxia and neonatal infection are at the origin. Reducing the frequency of seizures requires strengthening antenatal care and monitoring delivery.

Table of Content: Vol. 35 (Supplement No. 1) 2023 – Conference Proceedings

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