Comparison of neonatal prognosis in gestational diabetic and healthy mothers


Objective. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common medical disorder complicating pregnancy, which can have serious consequences for mothers and infants. This study was performed with the aim to compare the neonatal and maternal outcomes of two groups of pregnancies: complicated and uncomplicated by diabetes facing a preterm birth.
Materials and Methods. This case-control study was undertaken on 196 healthy mothers with preterm birth and 99 premature infants of diabetic mothers referred to Ghaem Hospital in the 2019-21 period. Maternal characteristics including age, rate of pregnancy, type of delivery, delivery complication, and prolonged rupture of the membrane (PROM), along with neonatal characteristics including gestational age, APGAR score, weight, the need for mechanical ventilation, ophthalmic examinations, and laboratory results of neonates including nucleated red blood cell (NRBC), white blood cell (WBC), and venous blood gas were recorded in the checklist.
Results. In this study, the mean gestational age of neonates in the groups of healthy and diabetic mothers were 35.03 ± 2.46 and 33.88 ± 2.73 weeks, respectively. Maternal age, type of delivery, prolonged rupture of the membrane, need for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and need for ventilation, first minute APGAR score, and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) exhibited significant differences between the two groups (P-value < 0.05).
Conclusions. According to the results of our study, diabetic mothers had pregnancy at an older age, had a longer prolonged rupture of the membrane, and were more likely to have a caesarean-section. Moreover, the preterm infants of diabetic mothers had lower APGAR scores and a greater need for resuscitation at birth. They also run a higher risk of retinopathy of prematurity.

Table of Content: Vol. 36 (No. 1) 2024 March

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